Biology and Behaviour of Falcons with Emphasis on Breeding and Healthcare of Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus



Thesis submitted to the

for the award of the degree of





Department of Zoology
Farook College, Calicut
University of Calicut
Kerala, India.

July 2004


The falcon species has always been regarded as a very uncommon and shy bird, and it is very rarely met with by amateur birdwatchers (Ali 1968). Falcon is the national bird of UAE and is a symbol of force and courage, recognizing the importance of falconry in Arab tradition and culture. Arabs constitute 1/3rd part of the world’s falconers. Falcons are fast flying hunters suited for taking prey in the air. In this pesticide era they are facing serious ecological risks, as their position is at the top of the biological pyramids.

The falcons are extremely accomplished and swift fliers generally killing their prey on the wing (Ali 1967). The most important activity of falcons is hunting (Baker 1967). Some species of falcons are extensively used in the sport of falconry (Ali 1983). Unlike many birds, falcons live as single pairs within the community (Ratcliffe 1980). The documented speed of a Peregrine’s stoop is over 320 km/hr (Cade 1980). Peregrine falcons generally mate for life, but will readily accept a new partner if their mate dies (Newton 1990). Food requirements vary depending on a bird's age, size, activity and season (Thorstrom 2000). Riddle and Remple (1994) estimated that there might be 8600 Saker and Peregrine falcons in captivity in the Middle East. A lot of works and studies have been conducted across the world, from time immemorial to the present, regarding falcons and falconry. Eminent writers and bird watchers have contributed memorable and informative works on this subject.

My study was to examine behaviours like vocalization and timing of movement by field observation in and around the aviaries, cages and flight pens of various centres. Vocalization helps falcons to communicate with each other. The main objectives of this study were to document the information that relates to the biology, behaviour and captive management of falcons. The prime focus of the study was in captivity. Field observations were also made especially with reference to hunting behaviour, training and other related aspects. Data relevant to feeding, breeding, health and healthcare, management in captivity were collected. Data on roosting, bathing, foraging and vocalization, and different types of food, feeding methods and food consumption in captivity and in the field were also collected.
The other objectives of the study were to examine the environmental requirements at different stages of breeding, to observe and acquire knowledge of pterylographic and taxonomic patterns of feathers on body tracts of adults and nestlings and to observe and document the sequence of moulting and plumage. An attempt is also made to document various species of falcons used for falconry in UAE, methods of hunting and training practices, the reasons for falcon's extinction and their remedies and falconry through ages and its current state.

The present study on the biology of falcons was carried out in different parts of UAE, mainly because of their large number in captivity. The study was started in November 1999, and pursued more intensively from August 2001 till December 2003. The study was conducted in falcon breeding and research centres, falcon hospitals and falcon clinics, concentrating in H.H. Sheikh Zayed Ibnu Sultan Al Nahyan Falcon Research Hospital, Abu Dhabi; Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency (ERWDA), Abu Dhabi; National Avian Research Centre (NARC), Sweihan; Nad Al Shiba Avian Reproduction Research Centre, Dubai; Dubai Falcon Hospital; and Falcon Clinic, Sharjah.

The falcon cages were monitored through spy holes during breeding season. Through lab test results of fecal samples and pharyngeal swabs, an attempt was made to find disease-causing organisms. For observations on various behavioural aspects, standard methods were adopted. Eggs were measured and weighed by Brunham formula. Falcons were closely followed to maximum possible period through their fledgling, juvenile, one-year-old and adult at different ages. Colour rings were used to make individual recognition possible in cages. Feathers were plucked and patterns of follicle arrangements were observed for pterylographic study as adopted by Naik (1965). Moult of feathers was studied by measuring various feathers of the individual primaries, secondaries and tail feathers of 40 birds of Peregrine, 20 each of Saker and Gyr falcons by using the scoring system adopted by Miller (1928). Formalin preserved specimens were washed thoroughly in water for many hours and dried.

The weather plays a major role in connection with the hunting and abundance of preys. The climate in UAE is hot and rainfall is low. Falcons are very sensitive to climatic conditions and fastest in the animal kingdom. They have special characters some of which are mentioned below. Having twice the number of cervical vertebrae enables them to rotate their heads on the axis to almost 360 degrees. Falcons have two regions of retina for acute vision. Nostrils have needle like projection for cutting air and easy flight.

It was observed that all falcons of the area were early raisers, made morning calls and moved out of roosts, preened feathers, moved from one roost to another and glided down to start foraging. In aviaries and pens small boxes were provided for roosting. It was noticed that falcons foraged in morning twilight but not in evening. They drank water many times in summer.

The falcon is a very aggressive and busy bird. Unlike most other birds, females are larger than males. It is observed that a hungry falcon will attack even other falcons in aviary for food. Their body is well adapted for attacking and capturing prey. They have specific timings for each activity like roosting and sleeping.  In captivity they keep themselves busy by moving from one roost to another. Falcons are migratory birds from breeding grounds to wintering grounds and back.

Falcons are carnivorous and sensitive to stored food during breeding. There are several species of falcons, but in UAE three major species are used for falconry. They are Peregrine, Saker and Gyr. Peregrine is widely spread all over the world except Antarctica. Saker flies fast and hunts at low level. Gyr is powerful and prefers to catch larger preys. Birds, large insects, rodents and other small ground animals are the main food. It is found that larger falcons have a tendency to hunt bigger preys than smaller ones. It is observed that the majority of food items were sand grouse (31.3%), stone curlew (24.8%), houbara bustard (13.5%) and desert hare (10.3%). They also consumed rat, pigeon, lizard, quail, etc.

The consumption of only live food may cause diseases; so mixed food (frozen and live) is advisable for proper health. If they feed on boneless meat regularly, calcium deficiency occurs and affects bones, beak, claws etc. and casting does not occur properly. The boned and boneless mixed food is suggested to take care of calcium deficiency and casting. It is noticed that falcon's digestive system can dissolve bones. Although fresh food is best for them, sometimes frozen food is unavoidable. Falcons are fed with live or frozen food in hunting season, but in moulting period they are given frozen food. Fasting once fortnightly is recommended for proper casting. It is advisable to spray water on facial and thoracic regions of falcons, speed up defecation.

As falcons are royal birds, breeding and management are expensive. The objectives adopted were to examine the environmental requirements and different stages of breeding. In UAE the breeding season starts from February-March to August-September. Most falcons are monogamous and they have unique breeding cycle. They breed once a year and live with the same mate until death.

Through artificial insemination, the breeding centres have helped the falcons overcome the decrease in population. During artificial semen collection urine contamination may occur, and is solved by seminal washing. DNA testing and laproscopy are used to determine sex. Falcon's life span is as high as 10 to 12 years, but captive falcons live longer. In Peregrines and large falcons males apparently reach sexual maturity on an average, about a year later than females.

It is observed that if first eggs are damaged before hatching or chicks die in first few days, they lay more than one clutch of eggs in a year. Mortality rate is constant with respect to age unlike other animals. The larger species reach breeding age at 2-3 years. The eggs of Peregrine are creamy pink to reddish-brown and are average of 53mm. long. It is observed that overall mean clutch-size recorded was 3.3. Generally 2-6 eggs are laid, incubation is 28-35 days, offspring fledged in 4-8 weeks and youngs stay with parents learning to hunt for 1-3 months. Average incubation period was 32.6 days. Details of fate of eggs laid by Peregrines were as: 57% hatched, 24% did not hatch even after extended incubation, 11% were damaged during incubation and 8% destroyed by the effect of pesticides. First two eggs hatched after an interval of 2.31 days on an average. Since incubation started with laying of first egg, eggs in a clutch hatched asynchronously. Average nestling and fledgling periods were 16.6 and 37.1 days respectively.

It was noticed that even though differences in size, there is no significant difference in the daily food intake of male and female nestlings for about the first 21 days. It is understood that female nestlings require a greater amount of food than do males, but because of greater growth efficiency, they need less than expected on the basis of body mass.

Pterylographic studies, study of plumage and moulting of falcons are indispensable features for research studies. The less availability and high cost make the falcons difficult to get for studies like this. The study is meant to acquire the maximum knowledge of taxonomic pterylographic patterns of feathers on body tracts of adults and nestlings. Falcons generally moult once a year. The moulting time is the resting period of falcons in captivity.

Pterylosis of young differs in some pterylae from that of the adults. The femoral tract in nestlings is not developed as in adults. It is noticed that after moulting, in the second year the colour of moulted feathers in wild falcons differ compared to falcons in captivity. The probable reason may be differences in nutrition. The colour of secondary feathers got changed in Peregrine and Gyr after two years of age, but the primary feathers will be same. It was observed; the relationship of plumage colouration was more or less not influenced in pairing. The season for moulting in all falcons coincides with breeding season. At the population level falcons moult primaries from March to October, secondaries April to November and retrices May to November. In the case of Peregrine falcons the moulting starts very late, from May and it lasts till next January.

The management of falcons in captivity requires highly sophisticated facilities. Temperature and humidity controllers are to be provided in captivity. Aviaries should be well lit and airy and faced away from cold prevailing winds. Nest ledges or boxes are to be placed in aviaries. In aviaries roofing materials are to be used with the purpose of preventing excess heat in summer and condensation in winter. In falcon aviaries the wet muddy substrate is a cause of hypothermia and poor perches is the reason of bumble foot disease. Falcons only breed in captivity when they feel convenience and comfortability. It is advised to leave alone enclosures from disturbance from egg laying to youngs have fledged.
In captivity food is not given to falcons in live condition and it can be advised that frozen food items are not to be given below 20°C. It is also recommended that food ledges are to be used for feeding falcons in captivity. Calcium supplements and vitamins are given if necessary. Youngs require more food than adults. In falcons dehydration is widely seen, so in captivity drinking water and bathtubs are to be erected.

In captivity management of falcons may not be perfect without caring the health and hygiene. Hence the topic health and healthcare was included in my studies. This includes documenting important preventive, promotive and curative measures taken in falcon hospitals and clinics for various diseases. Main objectives of study were to document the diseases caused by virus, bacteria, fungus, internal and external parasites and diseases by other agents and their preventive measures.

A large variety of viral, bacterial and fungal diseases are widely seen in falcons. Most diseases are not so critical if precautions and treatments are taken in proper time. Bacterial infections are not so dangerous as viral diseases in falcons. Most bacterial diseases and viral diseases are transmitted to falcons through their preys like pigeons. The endoparasites are protozoans and helminths. The study based on statistical field research showed that in captivity bumblefoot is seen widely, so it is advised to give the falcon training twice a day to reduce the morbidity rate.

As far as falcons are concerned the diseases are not fatal, except New Castle and Aspergillosis in late stages. Proper management, routine checkup, health awareness programmes and counseling will prevent almost all diseases.

Falconry is the traditional sport of the Arabian Gulf. Arab people constitute one-third of the total falconers in the world. Major species used for falconry comprises of Peregrine, saker, Gyr and their hybrids.

Skilled trainers train falcons to perfect the techniques of hunting. Today falconry is facing a serious threat by habitat destruction, pesticides and diseases. Falcon trappers catch them when they rest on the route during migration. Though falcon population faces serious threats, man has made modern technological improvements to reduce the rate of destruction through captive breeding and falcon release project.  Proper management, better hygiene, balanced diet and routine checkup will prevent almost all diseases to a certain extent.
The following recommendations are given:

  • Since consumption of live specimens cause infectious parasitic diseases. A mixed food regime of frozen and live food is advisable. Feeding on stored food alone is not healthy and food frozen below 20oC may be avoided. Food supplements are necessary if the birds are fed on monotype food. Diverse food promotes healing wounds, immunity, hunting capacity, and proper casting.
  • Fasting once in a fortnight facilitate proper casting. Ammonium chloride, used for purgation of falcon's alimentary system, kills them when given excessively.


  • Old food items are to be removed from the cages regularly. The food items should be given in food ledges or in a clean place. Throwing food to falcons is not advisable.
  1. Food items should be checked before feeding to falcons. Attempts should be made to reduce the possibility of infected pigeons transferring trichomoniasis to falcons. Falconers should feed the falcons only after removing head, neck and internal organs of preys. Pigeon flocks should be medicated with antiprotozoal drugs to reduce the number of protozoan carriers.


  • For artificial insemination the spermatozoa may be washed gently using water, immediately after collection, to clean it off the urine and other contaminations. Contaminations are likely to cause lower success.
  1. In aviaries roofing materials are to be used with the purpose of preventing excess heat in summer and condensation in winter.


  1. Falcons constantly forced to land on cold muddy floors are likely to have health problems and hypothermia. Bark or wood clips are not suitable substrate as they harbour spores of Aspergillus sp.
  1. It is advisable to change perches regularly. Changing the perches once in a while gives a stimulus to the raptors. Apart from perches, baths, feed ledges and hidden retreats are also necessary in the enclosures. Poor perches in aviaries are known to cause over 80% of the bumble foot disease. The talons should be cut and trimmed once a month especially during moulting season, otherwise it may cause bumble foot.


  1. Best time to remake nests and clean the cages and nest boxes is 6-8 weeks before the breeding season. Once egg laying commences it is best to leave enclosures undisturbed until hatching.
  1. The bathtubs of 4-6 inches of water depending on size and height of the individual falcons are deep enough for most birds for bathing. Bath water is not necessary for sick birds, although water for drinking must be available. Cleaning the bath at least twice a week especially during summer is necessary to avoid green algae and other noxious materials build up.


  1. Entering into aviaries should be with great care and feeding done carefully if pairs are showing behavior associated with breeding. It is better not to enter the cage until chicks are full fledged.
  1. Effective windshields are advisable to protect the birds during moulting season to speed up the moulting.


  1. Some of the diseases are fatal to falcons. However, proper management, better hygiene, balanced diet and routine check up will prevent to a certain extent almost all diseases affecting falcons.





Chapter 1




1.1 Taxonomy of Falcons


1.2 Worldwide status of falcons


1.3 Aims and objectives of the present study


1.4 Significance of the study in view of earlier works


1.5 Falcon species under study


a. Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus


b. Saker falcon Falco rusticolus


c. Gyr falcon Falco cherrug


1.6 Area of study


1.7 Climate


1.7.1 Temperature


1.7.2 Rainfall


1.7.3 Relative humidity


1.7.4 Wind


1.8 Flora and fauna of the study area


1.8.1 Flora


1.8.2 Fauna



Chapter 2


Biology and General Behavior


2.1 Introduction


2.2 Methodology


2.3 Results


2.3.1 Foraging


2.3.2 Roosting


2.3.3 Movement


2.3.4 Vocalization


2.4 Discussion


2.5 Summary and Conclusion



Chapter 3


Food and Feeding


3.1 Introduction


3.2 Methodology


3.3 Results


3.3.1 Hunting and feeding behavior of falcons in the field


3.3.2 Food of falcons in the field


a. Asiatic Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata macqueeni


b. Stone Curlew or Kairowan Burhinus oedicnemus


c. Arabian hare Lepus capensis


3.3.3 Quantitative estimation of food items preyed in the field


3.3.4 Diet of falcons in captivity


3.3.5 Supplements


3.3.6 Digestion, casting and casting materials in falcons


3.4 Discussion


3.5 Summary and Conclusion



Chapter 4


Breeding Biology in Peregrine falcons


4.1 Introduction


4.2 Methodology


4.3 Results


4.3.1 Breeding Plumage


4.3.2 Pair formation


4.3.3 Courtship display and courtship feeding


4.3.4 Mounting


4.3.5 Nesting, nests and nest site selection


4.3.6 Egg laying and clutch size


4.3.7 Incubation and egg manipulation


4.3.8 Artificial insemination and semen collection


4.3.9 Artificial incubation


4.3.10 Egg storage and egg handling


4.3.11 Hatching


4.3.12 Development and care of young


4.3.13 Growth and general development of behavior


4.3.14 Food for the young


4.3.15 Breeding success


4.3.16 Foster parents and monitoring


4.3.17 Natality, Longevity and Mortality


4.4 Discussion


4.5 Summary and Conclusion



Chapter 5


Pterylosis, Plumage and Moulting


5.1 Introduction


5.2 Methodology


5.3 Results


5.3.1 Pterylosis


a. Pterylosis of the nestling


b. Pterylosis of the adult


5.3.2 Plumage


5.3.3 Moulting


5.4 Discussion


5.5 Summary and Conclusion



Chapter 6


Management of Falcons in Captivity


6.1 Introduction


6.2 Methodology


6.3 Observation


6.3.1 Environment


6.3.2 Basic needs


6.3.3 Drinking and bathing


6.3.4 Food and nutrition


6.3.5 Breeding and behaviour of falcons in captivity


6.3.6 Nest areas


6.4 Discussion


6.5 Summary and Conclusion



Chapter 7


Health and Healthcare of Falcons


7.1 Introduction


7.2 Methodology


7.3 Observations


7.3.1 Viral Diseases


7.3.2 Bacterial diseases


7.3.3 Fungal Diseases


7.3.4 Parasitic Diseases


a. Protozoan Diseases


b. Helminths


c. Ectoparasites


7.3.5 Nutrition deficiencies and metabolic disorders


7.3.6 Bumblefoot


7.3.7 Injuries to eyes and keel


7.4 Discussion


7.5 Summary and Conclusion



Chapter 8


Falconry in Middle East Region


8.1 Introduction


8.2 Methodology


8.3 Observations


8.3.1 Various Falcon species


8.3.2 Falcon quarry


8.3.3 Training


8.3.4 Hunting


8.3.5 Furniture


8.3.6 Falcon trapping


8.3.7 Crisis of falcons


8.3.8 Feather damage and imping


8.3.9 Transportation


8.3.10 Falcon release and rehabilitation


8.3.11 Safety, law and enforcement


8.3.12 PIT microchipping and ID chip


8.4 Discussion


8.5 Summary and Conclusion



Table 1.1 Mean daily temperatures (°C) recorded at Abu Dhabi during 1999-2003


Table 1.2 Minimum dry bulb temperatures (°C) recorded at Abu Dhabi during 1999-2003


Table 1.3 Maximum dry bulb temperatures (°C) recorded at Abu Dhabi during 1999-2003


Table 1.4 Monthly total rainfall (mm) recorded at Abu Dhabi during 1999-2003


Table 1.5 Monthly total number of rainy days recorded at Abu Dhabi (1999-2003)


Table 1.6 Monthly mean relative humidity (%) recorded at Abu Dhabi during 1999-2003


Table 1.7 Monthly mean maximum 10-minute speed recorded at Abu Dhabi (1999-2003)


Table 2.1 Frequency-occurrence of awakening and roosting of a pair of Peregrine falcons


Table 2.2 Average daily distance travelled (m) by a pair of Peregrine falcons on a full-day


Table 2.3 Frequency of progression rates


Table 2.4 Summary of vocalizations of the falcons in the study area


Table 2.5 Frequency-occurrence of a few types of Vocalization by a pair of Peregrines


Table 3.1 Monthly abundance of prey items of falcons in the field


Table 3.2 Monthly occurrence of food items in the stomach-contents of falcons in the field


Table 3.3 Consumption of prey items of the falcons in the study area


Table 3.4 Effect of feeding falcons with boneless meat continuously in captivity


Table 3.5 Effect of feeding falcons with different types of food in captivity


Table 3.6 Effect of feeding falcons with different types of food (live specimen) in captivity


Table 3.7 Effect of feeding falcons with different types of food (live and frozen) in cages


Table 4.1 The mean of the Peregrine eggs measured in the lab (2001-2003)


Table 4.2 Details of clutch sizes of the Peregrine falcons in the lab (2001-2003)


Table 4.3 The intervals between the laying of first and second eggs in Peregrines in the lab


Table 4.4 The incubation periods in Peregrine falcons in the lab (2001-2002)


Table 4.5 The fate of the eggs laid by the Peregrine falcons in the lab (2001-2003)


Table 4.6 Hatching intervals between the first and second eggs in the Peregrines in the lab


Table 4.7 Nestling periods in the Peregrine falcons in captivity (2001-2003)


Table 4.8 Fledging periods in the Peregrine falcons in captivity (2001-2003)


Table 4.9 Weight of the young Peregrine falcons at the time of fledging


Table 4.10 Fate of the nestlings of the Peregrine falcons in captivity


Table 4.11 Breeding success of the Peregrine falcons in captivity


Table 5.1 Month wise distribution of the number of moulting feathers of Peregrine falcons


Table 5.2 Monthly distribution of the Peregrine falcons showing moult of different feathers


Table 5.3 The correlation matrix of lengths of primary feathers of Peregrines in moulting


Table 7.1 The percentage of diseased captive bred and wild falcons brought in Abu Dhabi Falcon Research Hospital for treatment during 1999-2003           


Table 7.2 The percentage of diseased captive bred and wild falcons brought in Abu Dhabi Falcon Research Hospital for treatment during 1999-2003


Table 7.3 The percentage of diseased captive bred and wild falcons brought in Sharjah Falcon Clinic for treatment during 1999-2003


Table 7.4 Some diseases affecting falcons, symptoms, pathogens and medicines provided


Table 7.5 The role of vitamins and deficiency diseases in falcons in captivity


Table 8.1 The falcons released under the H.H. Sheikh Zayed Falcon Release Project Abu Dhabi during 1999-2003




Plate 1.1 The Black Shaheen is a medium-sized dark Peregrine subspecies, breeds in India


Plate 1.2 The Saker falcon, the most versatile houbara hunter and the favourite among Arabs


Plate 1.3 Gyr falcon, magnificent falcon is the most powerful and lethal of all aerial killers


Plate 1.4 Nostril of falcon has a needle like projection, helps for cutting air for easy flight


Plate 3.1 Prey of falcon, Houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii


Plate 3.2 Stone curlew or Kairowan Burhinus oedicnemus


Plate 3.3 Arabian hare Lepus capensis ordesert hare could be potential quarry for falconry


Plate 3.4 Sand grouse Pterocles exustus exist in scattered abundance in deserts


Plate 3.5 The ‘castings’ of falcons


Plate 4.1 A brief period of courtship precedes the roosting and subsequent mating


Plate 4.2 (a) Courtship feeding in falcons, (b) Mounting in falcons


Plate 4.3 Falcons normally lay three or four eggs and the female sits incubating them


Plate 4.4  Newly hatched Peregrine falcon chick in the aviary


Plate 4.5 Asynchronous hatched Peregrine falcon chicks


Plate 4.6 Young falcons are well feathered by the time they are five weeks old


Plate 4.8 Second day of hatching chicks


Plate 4.9 Ten days old Peregrine chicks


Plate 4.10 Twenty days old Peregrine youngs


Plate 4.11 Four weeks old falcon chicks


Plate 5.1 Falcon has 10 primaries, 12 secondaries and 6 tail feathers in their wings


Plate 6.1 Aviary in Abu Dhabi


Plate 6.2 Nest ledges or boxes should be placed in aviary


Plate 6.3 The folded skin of a falcon’s leg due to rehydration


Plate 7.1 A case of viral pox in an immature Peregrine falcon


Plate 7.2 Trichomonas infection in a Saker falcon


Plate 7.3 Severe Coccidiosis infection in a Peregrine falcon


Plate 7.4 Life Cycle of Serratospeculum seurati


Plate 7.5 The feet of a Saker falcon infected with Bumblefoot


Plate 8.1 Black Gyr X Shaheen, White Gyr and Saker X Shaheen hybrid falcons in aviary


Plate 8.2 The falconers cook and eat the houbara which is caught by the falcon


Plate 8.3 Sealing is a painless procedure, calms falcon immediately after capturing


Plate 8.4 Peregrine with houbara; they can sustain themselves for days with a good meal


Plate 8.5 (a) Place on which a falcon stands (b) Leather glove (c) Leather head cover (hood)


Plate 8.6 (a) Training falcons in the field (b) A retrieving device‘Tilwa’ used for training



Fig. 1.1 The Map of United Arab Emirates


Fig. 1.2 The study area


Fig. 2.1 Mean rates of progression during different hours


Fig. 2.2 Frequency of progression rates


Fig. 2.3 Sonogram – Alarming call of Peregrine falcon


Fig. 2.4 Sonogram – Uttering call of Saker falcon


Fig. 2.5 Sonogram – Cacking call of Peregrine falcon


Fig. 2.6 Sonogram – Cacking call of Gyr falcon


Fig. 2.7 Sonogram – Alarming call of Gyr falcon


Fig. 2.8 Sonogram – Contact call of Gyr X Shaheen Hybrid falcon


Fig. 2.9 Sonogram – Territory call of Saker falcon


Fig. 2.10 Sonogram – Territory call of Peregrine falcon


Fig. 2.11 Sonogram – Creaking call of Peregrine falcon


Fig. 2.12 Sonogram – Clicking call Gyr falcon


Fig. 2.13 Sonogram – Wailing call of Saker falcon


Fig. 2.14 Sonogram – Wailing call of Gyr falcon


Fig. 2.15 Sonogram – Challenge call of Gyr X Saker Hybrid falcon


Fig. 2.16 Sonogram – Mobbing call of Saker falcon


Fig. 3.1 Graphical representation of monthly abundance of stone curlews and sand grouses in the study area and in the stomach-contents


Fig. 4.1 Some milestones in the development of the Peregrine falcons in  the lab


Fig. 5.1 Pterylosis of a nestling of Peregrine falcon (dorsal view)


Fig. 5.2 Pterylosis of a nestling of Peregrine falcon (ventral view)


Fig. 5.3 Pterylosis of an adult Peregrine falcon (dorsal view)


Fig. 5.4 Pterylosis of an adult Peregrine falcon (ventral view)


Fig. 5.5 The moulting sequence of primary feathers of Peregrine falcon and Saker falcons


Fig. 5.6 Comparison of the lengths of primary feathers of Peregrine, Saker and Gyr falcons


Fig. 5.7 Comparison of lengths of secondary feathers of Peregrine, Saker and Gyr falcons


Fig. 5.8 Comparison of the lengths of tail feathers of Peregrine, Saker and Gyr falcons


Fig. 5.9 Correlation between the mean length Primary feathers No. I & II of Peregrines


Fig. 5.10 Correlation between the mean length Primary feathers No. II & III of Peregrines



Appendix 1.1 Diagrammatic representation of classification of family Falconiformes


Appendix 1.2 Taxonomic classification of family Falconiformes


Appendix 1.3 Characteristics of major falcon species


Appendix 1.3.1 Characteristics of Peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus


Appendix 1.3.2 Characteristics of Saker falcon Falco cherrug


Appendix 1.3.3 Characteristics of Gyr falcon Falco rusticolus


Appendix 1.3.4 Characteristics of Common Kestrel Falco tinnunculus


Appendix 1.3.5 Characteristics of Luggar falcon Falco jugger


Appendix 1.3.6 Characteristics of Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides pelegrinoides andRed-naped Shaheen  Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus


Appendix 1.3.7 Characteristics of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor


Appendix 1.3.8 Characteristics of Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus


Appendix 1.3.9 Characteristics of Western Red-footed falcon Falco vespertinus


Appendix 1.3.10 Characteristics of Hobby Falco subbuteo


Appendix 1.4 Systematic list of the birds of the United Arab Emirates


Appendix 1.5 Systematic list of the birds of the United Arab Emirates with uncertain status


Appendix 1.6 Systematic list of the mammals of the United Arab Emirates


Appendix 2.1 Aspects of awakening and roosting in a pair of Peregrines in the study area


Appendix 2.2 Monthly break-up of the frequency distribution of the distance between the spots of the first and last feeding and the respective roosting boxes in the falcons of aviary


Appendix 2.3 Monthly breakup of the frequency-occurrence of the number of boxes used as perches on passage between the roost and foraging by a pair of Peregrines in the aviary


Appendix 4.1 Time spent by the Peregrine falcons at different clutches


Appendix 4.2 Relationship between the sequence of eggs in clutches and their failure to hatch in Peregrines


Appendix 4.3 Weights of Peregrine, Gyr and Saker falcons at different age levels


Appendix 4.4 The weights of Barbary, Luggar, Lanner falcons at different age levels


Appendix 5.1 Monthwise distribution of number of moulting feathers of Peregrines in lab


Appendix 5.2 Monthwise distribution of number of moulting feathers of Sakers in aviary


Appendix 5.3 Relative length of Primary feathers of Peregrine falcons measured in aviary


Appendix 5.4. Relative lengths of Secondary feathers of Peregrines measured in aviary


Appendix 5.5 Relative length of Tail feathers of Peregrine falcons measured in aviary


Appendix 5.6. Relative length of Primary feathers of Saker falcons measured in aviary


Appendix 5.7 Relative lengths (mm) of Secondary feathers of Sakers measured in aviary


Appendix 5.8 Relative length (mm) of Tail feathers of Saker falcons measured in aviary


Appendix 5.9 Relative length (mm) of Primary feathers of Gyr falcons measured in aviary


Appendix 5.10 Relative lengths (mm) of Secondary feathers of Gyrs measured in aviary


Appendix 5.11 Relative length (mm) of Tail feathers of Gyr falcons measured in aviary


Appendix 7.1 The percentage of diseased birds brought in Abu Dhabi Falcon Research Hospital


Appendix 7.2 Table 7.2 The percentage of diseased falcons brought in Dubai Falcon Hospital


Appendix 7.3 Table 7.3 The percentage of diseased falcons brought in the Sharjah Falcon Clinic


Appendix 7.4 The details of birds brought in Charity Bird Hospital Delhi during 2000-2003


Appendix 7.5 The details of birds brought in Shadra Bird Hospital Delhi during 2000-2003


Appendix 8.1 Crossing of Gyr X Peregrine


Appendix 8.2 Crossing of White Gyr X Peregrine


Appendix 8.3 Crossing of Black Gyr X Peregrine


Appendix 8.4 Crossing of Saker X Peregrine


Appendix 8.5 Crossing of White Gyr X Saker


Appendix 8.6 Crossing of Black Gyr X Saker


Copy Right :    I   Developed by Abdul Muneer and Thahir Rahman on behalf of Third Eye Technologies